Bitcoin futures contracts are a derivative product similar to traditional futures contracts. Two parties agree to buy or sell fixed amounts of bitcoin for a specific price on a certain date. Traders use them speculatively, but you can also use them to hedge. Hedging is especially popular with miners who need to cover their operating costs.
Futures are a great way to diversify your portfolio, trade on leverage, and bring some stability to your future income. If you want to explore more advanced strategies with futures, take a look at arbitrage. Cash-and-carry arbitrage and inter-exchange arbitrage offer some lower-risk trading opportunities when executed correctly.
Bitcoin futures contracts are an alternative investment opportunity to simply holding coins and tokens. As a more complex product, they require a deeper understanding to trade safely and responsibly. Although they are more challenging to use, futures provide ways to lock in prices with hedging and profit from downturns in the market with shorting.
What are Bitcoin futures?
Why do people use Bitcoin futures?
One major use case for Bitcoin futures is the opportunity for buyers and sellers to lock in future prices. This process is known as hedging. Futures traditionally have been used as hedging instruments in the commodities markets where producers need stable profits to cover their costs.
Benefits of trading Bitcoin futures
The futures contract
A bitcoin miner can take a short position in a futures contract to protect their BTC holdings. When the futures contract matures, the miner will have to settle with the other party in the agreement.
If the price of Bitcoin in the futures market (mark price) is higher than the contract’s forward price, the miner will have to pay the difference to the other party. If the mark price is lower than the contract’s forward price, the other party taking the long position will pay the difference to the miner.
The spot market
On the day of the futures contract’s maturation, the miner sells their BTC on the spot market. This sale will give them the market price, which should be close to the mark price in the futures market.
However, the spot market trade will effectively cancel any profits or losses made in the futures market. The two sums together provide the miner the hedged price they wanted. Let’s combine the two steps to illustrate with numbers.
Combining the futures contract and spot trade
A miner shorts a contract for one BTC at $35,000 in three months. If the mark price is $40,000 at the maturation date, they lose $5,000 in the settlement paid to the long position in the contract. At the same time, the miner sells one BTC on the spot market, where the spot price is also $40,000. The miner receives $40,000, which covers his $5,000 loss and leaves them with $35,000, the hedged price.
Leverage and margin
An exchange displays leverage as a multiplier or percentage. For example, 10x multiplies your capital by 10. So, $5,000 leveraged 10x provides you $50,000 to trade. When you trade using leverage, your initial capital covers your losses and is known as your margin. Let’s look at an example:
You purchase two quarterly Bitcoin futures contracts at $30,000 each. Your exchange has let you trade this with 20x leverage, meaning you provide only $3,000. This $3,000 acts as your margin, and the exchange will take your losses from this. If you lose more than $3,000, your position will be liquidated. You can calculate the margin percentage by dividing 100 by the leverage multiple. 10% is 10X, 5% is 20X, 1% is 100X. This percentage tells you how much the price can fall from your contract’s price before liquidation.
Bitcoin futures on Binance
Not every futures contract is the same. Different exchanges have varying mechanisms, expirations, pricing, and fees on their futures products. Binance currently offers a few options that differ mainly in their expiration date and funding.
So far, we’ve only mentioned futures that have a defined expiration date. Binance’s futures exchange has quarterly futures, but you can find monthly and semi-annual maturities (expiration dates) on other exchanges. You can quickly check when a contract will expire from its name.
Bitcoin futures quarterly contracts on the Binance exchange have the following calendar cycle: March, June, September, and December. A BTCUSD Quarterly 0925 contract expires on 25 September 2021, 08:00:00 UTC.
When you enter a Bitcoin quarterly future on Binance, you need to maintain your margin to cover any possible losses. However, you will only pay this loss when you are liquidated, or the contract matures. With a perpetual futures contract, you also need to pay or receive a funding fee every eight hours.
Funding fees are peer-to-peer payments between traders. These rates prevent divergence in the forward price of perpetual Bitcoin futures contracts and the mark price. The mark price is similar to the spot price of BTC but it’s designed to prevent unfair liquidations that may occur when the market is highly volatile.
For example, a one-off trade in the spot market could temporarily raise the price by thousands of dollars. This volatility could liquidate futures positions but isn’t really representative of the real market price. You can see the funding rate highlighted below in red and the time it’s due.
A positive funding rate means the perpetual contract’s price is higher than the mark price. When the futures market is bullish and the funding rate is positive, traders in long positions pay the funding fee to short positions. A negative funding rate means that perpetual contracts’ prices are lower than the mark price. In this case, short positions pay the fee to long positions.
COIN-M futures and USDⓈ-M futures
Binance offers two options for trading futures: COIN-M futures with crypto as the margin and USDⓈ-M futures with BUSD/USDT as the margin. Both contract types are available as perpetual futures, but there are some slight differences between them.
COIN-M futures must use the contract’s underlying asset as collateral in your futures margin account. USDⓈ-M futures, however, allow you to use cross-collateral. This feature lets you borrow USDT and BUSD with 0% interest, using crypto assets in your spot wallet as collateral.
COIN-M futures are typically more popular with miners looking to hedge their Bitcoin positions. As the settlement is made via crypto, there is no need to transfer their BTC into stablecoins which would add an extra step to the hedging process.
How to start trading Bitcoin futures contracts?
If you want to start trading Bitcoin futures on Binance, all you need is to set up an account and get yourself some funds. Here’s a step-by-step guide on getting your first Bitcoin futures contract:
4. Choose the amount of leverage you are comfortable using. You can do this to the right of the [Cross] button on the trading UI. Remember, the higher the leverage, the more likely you are to be liquidated with small price movements.
5. Select the amount and type of order you want to use, then click [Buy/Long] or [Sell/Short] to open your Bitcoin futures position.
Bitcoin futures arbitrage strategies
When different cryptocurrency exchanges have differently priced futures contracts, there is an arbitration opportunity. By purchasing a contract on the cheaper exchange and selling another on the more expensive, you can profit from the difference.
For example, imagine that a BTCUSD Quarterly 0925 on Binance is $20 cheaper than another exchange. By purchasing a contract with Binance and selling a contract on the more expensive exchange, you can arbitrage the difference. However, prices do change rapidly due to automated trading bots. You need to be quick as any differential could disappear while you are making your trades. Also, consider any fees you might have to pay in your profit calculations.
Cash-and-carry arbitrage is nothing new when it comes to futures and is a market-neutral position. Market neutral positions involve buying and selling an asset at the same time in equal amounts. In this case, a trader goes long and short on an equal amount of identical futures contracts apart from their price. Crypto futures offer a significantly higher profit margin for cash-and-carry arbitrage than traditional commodity futures.
There’s much less trading efficiency compared to older markets and bigger arbitrage opportunities. To successfully use this strategy, you need to find a point where the BTC spot price is lower than the futures price.
At this point, simultaneously enter into a short position with a futures contract and purchase the same amount of bitcoin on the spot market to cover your short. When the contract reaches maturity, you can settle the short with your purchased bitcoin and arbitrage the differential you initially found.
So why does this opportunity occur in the first place? People are willing to pay a higher futures price if they don’t have the money to purchase BTC now but think the price will rise in the future. Let’s say you think in three months BTC will be worth $50,000, but it’s currently at $35,000.
At the moment, you have no money but will do in three months. In this case, you could enter a long position for a slight premium at $37,000 for delivery in three months. The cash-and-carry arbitrageur is essentially holding the BTC for you for a fee.